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FROM MIGRATION TO MOBILIY: policies and roads

FROM MIGRATION TO MOBILIY: policies and roads

Anna Krasteva
INTRODUCTION
Part One
HOW WE THINK MIGRATION – MIGRATION THEORIES
CHAPTER ONE. NOTIONS – ABUNDANT VOCABULARY, FLUID CONCEPTS
Migration – from binary oppositions to the ‘invention’ of the migrant
Mobility – freedom and/or mobilitarian ideology
Borders – from debordization to the construction of order, otherness, identities
From methodological nationalism to methodological cosmopolitism
CHAPTER TWO. THEORIES – HOW MIGRATION CONCEPTIONS HAVE DEVELOPPED AND HOW THEY SHOULD (NOT) DEVELOP
Theoretical model – migration in the four-pole coordinate system of the post-Westphalian state, the tamed globalisation, the global city and the pulsing market
The market
Economic theories – the theoretical aplomb of Occam’s razor
Neoclassical theory – international division of labour markets
Theory of human capital – the migrant as a rational actor, maximising migration by calculating costs and benefits
New economics of migration – diversification of risk through international mobility
Theory of dual labour market – from individuals to structural needs of the economy
Economic theories in a comparative perspective
The city
The Chicago school – the city as an experimental laboratory of migration
The open city – leadership and internationalisation
The state
The cosmopolitan state – from autonomy, based on the national exclusion, to sovereignty, based on transnational inclusion
The globalisation
Transnationalism as transformation
World systems theory – the overproduction of peripheries
Networks theory – the migration network as social capital
Conclusion – migration studies in a de-mystifying and critical role
Part Two
HOW MIGRATION UNFOLDS – THE MIGRATION PHENOMENON
CHAPTER THREE. THE EUROPEAN MIGRATION PHENOMENON
The Myth: Europe as the Promised Land
History
Pre-modernity
Odysseus and odysseys
The Vikings
Arab - Islamic expansion
The Silk Road
Slave trade
Summary – fusion of real and constructed forms of migration
Migration and national state
Migration and industrialisation
Europe – the global exporter of migration
Europe – the global importer of migration
Temporalities
History, temporality, migration
The contemporary migration phenomenon
The world migration system
Tendencies
From arrows to spaghetti
‘Tamed’ globalization
Politicization or ‘accused’ immigration
Feminization – the autonomization of the gendered migratory Self
New Migrations
Environmental – (in) consistency between the geography of causes and the geography of consequences
Figures
The minor – the little migrant with big problems
The irregular– created by the securitization
The eurostar – the favorite
The mobile student – the citizen of Europe
The pilgrim – compelled by the road and the sacrality
The retiree – the freest migrant
Homo viator – real and imagined
Figures – between referents and experience
Challenges
Demography– the unsolvable dilemma
The crises – new international migration order or the re-nationalisation of migration policies
The digital diaspora – the transnational e-citizenship
Conclusion. Europe as mobility and identity.
CHAPTER FOUR. THE BALKAN MIGRATION PHENOMENON
The cold war – polarization of the migration profiles
The long (re-)discovery of labour migration
Periodization
First period (1989 – 1995). Two opposing migration models
Second period (1995 – first decade of 21st c.). Post-conflict migrations. Europeanization and migration
Third period (first decade of 21st c. - 2008-9). Labour migration – the main game in town
Fourth period (2008/9 - ). Crisis and migration
Typology
Non-labour
Forced
Ethnic
Human trafficking
Refugees
Retirees
Labour
Emigration
Circular migration, including free movement of people
Immigration
Return
From forced migration and displacement
From voluntary migration
Types of migration and migration periods
National migration models
Post-conflict (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
‘All inclusive’ (Albania)
New emigration champion (Romania)
Immigration (Slovenia)
Tendencies – from extraordinary to ordinary migration currents:
From forced migrations to return
From ethnic to economic logic
From mass emigration to temporary and circular migration
From emigration to immigration
From diversification to convergence of migration models
Conclusion. Looking for work, not for asylum.
CHAPTER FIVE. THE BULGARIAN MIGRATION PHENOMENON
From ideologization to globalization
From ‘salvation lurks around’ to ‘the foreigner’
From Liberation to the Second World War – ethnic and minority migrations
The communist migration politics as biopolitics
Post-communist beginning – entering the radical end: ‘end of history’ and ‘end of geography’
To be Bulgarian abroad – the Bulgarian emigration phenomenon
From the lost on the roads to the doomed to success
Migration in white – the most political and the most symbolic
Mobile doctors
Mobile with a migration project
Mobile without a migration project
‘Second life’
New Europeans
Mobile Bulgarians
Second chance
Non-mobile migrants
Mobile non-migrants
Returnees
Globals
Transnationals
Digitals
From ‘exit’ to ‘voice’
To be a foreigner in Bulgaria – the Bulgarian immigration phenomenon
The ‘protestant’ of the post-communist economy: to be Chinese in Bulgaria
From ‘Grandpa Ivan’ to ‘the Russian daughter-in-law’: to be Russian in Bulgaria
Our ‘neighbour’ – comparative portrait
The post-communist migration model as post-Mediterranean: policies, temporality, logic
Part three
HOW WE MANAGE MIGRATION– MIGRATION POLICY
CHAPTER SIX. MIGRATION POLICY
Fourth generation migration studies
The dichotomy control – integration
Why migration policies systematically fail
Is liberal migration policy liberal?
Determinants and/or actors
Evaluation – three-dimensionality and three-level temporality
Conclusion or the responsibility of migration policy to manage migration as a positive phenomenon and resource for development
CHAPTER SEVEN. EUROPEAN MIGRATION POLICY
How to control the mobile – immigration policy
Hypotheses
‘Lost control’
Europe as an ‘exit’
Institutionalisation. Elasticity of institutional structure
Periodization
First stage. From the Treaty of Rome to Schengen – minimum intergovernmental cooperation (1957 – 1985)
Treaty of Rome (1957) – the four freedoms as fundamentals of the EU
Council Regulation 1612 from 1968 (15.10.68) – turning point in the policy on free movement of workers
Action programme in favour of migrant workers and their families (1974) – the issue of third-country migrants is introduced for the first time
Resolution for community approach towards third-country citizens (9.02.76) – legally non-binding consultations
Guidelines for a Community policy on migration (1.03.85) – first link between migration policy and the community
Second stage. From Schengen to Dublin – experimenting with new forms of cooperation from small groups of pioneer-countries (1985 – 1990)
Schengen Agreement (1985, 1990, 1995) – more freedom inside, more control outside
The single European act (1987) – first serious revision of the Treaty of Rome
Dublin I (15 June 1990) – beginning of harmonization of refugee policy
Third stage. From Maastricht to Amsterdam. Inclusion of migration policy in the community frame of the third pillar of international cooperation (1993 – 1997)
Fourth stage. Post-Amsterdam – communitarization, but not supra-nationalization (1997 - )
Treaty of Amsterdam (1997) – from third to first pillar
European Council in Tampere (1999) – from the strategic vision of Amsterdam to specific policies
Dublin II (2003) – humanitarian clause, but not always humanitarian practice
The Hague programme (4-6.11.2004) – Brussels’ symmetry of 10 priorities for 5 years
Frontex (2005) – product or catalyst of securitization
Green paper on an EU approach to managing economic migration (11.01.2005) – from permanent to temporary and circular migration
Treaty of Lisbon (13.12.2007) – ‘normalization’ of the European policy on migration and asylum
European pact on immigration and asylum (24.09.2008) – migration triad and integration dilemma
The Stockholm Programme (2010 - 2014) – the difficult balance of freedom, justice, security
Conclusion. The European migration policy – more communitarised than democratised
How to integrate the settled – integration policy
Policies and identities
Three models of integration policy
Assimilation – proposed or forced
Multiculturalism – policy of presence and recognition
Civil trajectories – integration as a responsibility of the immigrant
From acculturation to participation – colourful spectrum of integration strategies and policies
European integration policy – modest ambitions and soft law
Child perspective
The most vulnerable – the refugees and the asylum seekers
Gender perspective
Women, immigration, Islam, (in)security
Conclusion: from integration, following immigration, to integration as a condition for immigration
CHAPTER EIGHT. BULGARIAN MIGRATION POLICY
First strategy (2008 – 2015) – belated and ethnicised
Second strategy (2011 – 2020) – premature and securitised
Strategy on hold (2013 –14) – from moderate to radical discontinuity
Institutionalisation – diversified, but not coordinated
CONCLUSION. MOBILE CITIZENS – RIGID POLICIES
BIBLIOGRAPHY

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